Category Archives: Rat Rods

Ratting Around in a 1930 Model A Rat Rod

I usually think of a rat rod as a car with a lot of patina and a lot of power, so I hesitated a moment when I saw the shine on this chopped top, channeled 1930 Model A Rat Rod – but – it’s edgy enough to fall in the rat rod category and it definitely brings the power with its 350 cubic inch Chevy engine, and its 350 turbo transmission.

1930 Ford Model A Rat Rod for Sale
1930 Ford Model A Rat Rod for Sale on eBay

Looking to Buy a 1930 Model A Rat Rod?

I want to start by mentioning that this rat rod is listed for sale on eBay, and you can tell at a glance it’s going to be a head-turner and totally fun driver for whoever picks it up.

This car already has a lot going for it, and it also has some things that need some work, and the seller details those with a great deal of honesty and even made sure to show the places that need work in his photos, so there’s no guessing or wondering what you need to take care of with this ride.

While this chopped and channeled ’30 Ford Model A is a  great rat rod, it also wouldn’t take a lot to fix up the rough spots and transition it into a classic street rod.

For example, the seats don’t match anything but the red rims on the car, and they aren’t fastened in because they’re too tall for the car.

I was looking on specs for the original height of the 1930 Model A and didn’t find anything, but I did find that there were three million Model A’s built and they came in nine different body styles.

Production of the Ford Model A ended in 1932 with a total of 4,858,644 Models A’s produced from October of 1927 (1928 models) through the end of the A line production.

Classic Cars Online US is proud to partner with eBay to bring you this information on the 193o Ford Model A Rat Rod by showing you the  ’30 Ford A Model rat rod for sale in the photo.

Understanding the Drive Layouts

Understanding the Drive Layouts

by: Alvin Agomaa

Understanding Drive Layouts
Understanding Drive Layouts: Rat Rod image courtesy of Pixabay

The drive layout is the arrangement of the engine, transmission, and driven axles. The types of drive layouts are Front engine Front wheel drive (FF/ FWD), Front engine Rear wheel drive (FR/RWD), Mid engine Rear wheel drive(MR), Rear engine Rear wheel drive(RR), Four wheel drive (4WD or 4×4) and the All Wheel Drive(AWD). Each of these layouts has their own performance, advantages and disadvantages.

Front engine Front wheel drive (FF/FWD) – The Engine and the two driven axles are placed in front, where the power from the engine is transferred straight to the front wheels. This layout increases the interior space especially in small cars because there is no central tunnel needed for the driveshaft. FF layout has advantage when it comes on low grip surfaces, and its tendency to understeer reduces the risk of losing control. The disadvantage is the load placed on the front tires. The front tires must transfer all acceleration, steering, cornering, and braking forces to the road. This kind of tasks gives a lot of stress in front tires which may lead to wear and tear, while the rear tires have very little load on them.

Front engine Rear wheel drive (FR/ RWD) – This is the complement of FF layout, where the engine is placed longitudinally at the front but the two driven axles are placed at the rear connected through the driveshaft. With this kind of layout, installation of more powerful engine such as V8, V10 and V12 is not a problem. Since the FR has a driveshaft, central tunnel is present in this layout a little interior space is sacrificed. All of the disadvantages of the FF layout are the advantages of FR layout.

Mid Engine Rear wheel drive (MR) – The drive layout that consumes a lot of interior space of the car especially the seating capacity, the engine is placed in the middle of the chassis and the driven axles are at the rear. Although it has more weight at the rear, entering a corner makes it more difficult because the front tires have less traction resulting to understeer and since the rear is heavy, the car tends to oversteer when exiting a corner. This kind of layout is commonly used in racing cars and sports cars because of weight distribution focused in the center of the car.

Rear engine Rear wheel drive (RR) – This layout places both engine and the driven axle at the rear of the vehicle, even though the rear wheels benefit from the additional grip due to the added weight given by the engine, the front wheels still need grip in order to steer the car effectively. That’s why RR layout car can also be prone to understeer.

Four Wheel Drive (4WD or 4X4) / All Wheel Drive (AWD) – It is a term usually used to describe a car where the four wheels receive power from the engine simultaneously. This can be found in an off-road vehicle. A well distributed power to the four wheels improves the grip of the vehicle. The terms 4WD and 4X4 are used in jeeps and other off-road vehicles that require the driver to switch from 2WD used in street driving (two wheel drive) to 4WD to improve the grip depending on the road condition like mud, snow, etc. and it has a high and low gear selection. The AWD term was invented to identify the vehicle capable of driving all the wheels on any road condition without selecting high and low gear selection because the power is distributed on all the wheels. Unlike the 4WD with gear selection, you don’t have to select the appropriate gear to match the road condition. Most of the modern cars use AWD system for more traction and better handling.

About The Author

Alvin D. Agomaa is a car enthusiast who also write articles to give out advices about car maintenance, tips for buying cars and the like. For free car classified listings visit

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The Scoop on Intake Systems

The Scoop on Intake Systems
by: F.R. Penn

The Scoop on Intake Systems: Rat Rod Flatty With Chrome Carb Hats
By User:Trekphiler (Own work) [CC BY-SA 2.5 (], via Wikimedia Commons

The Scoop on Intake Systems

Intake systems are a vital part of your vehicle. If you are concerned with horsepower and optimal engine performance, it is imperative that your vehicle’s intake system operates at its full potential. There are also a number of custom and high performance replacement parts and systems that will boost your vehicle’s performance. Here is a brief description of some of the components of stock and specialty intake systems and why they are so important to your vehicle’s operation.

Cold Air Intake

The cold air intake increases power to your engine. It reduces the air temperature at the intake to be burned more efficiently in your combustion chamber. Proper cold air temperature provides increased power to the engine. An engine relies on a delicate balance of fuel and air for combustion. Cold air is much denser and holds more oxygen per volume than warm air. More oxygen molecules going in means a more efficient burn and more power in the combustion process. The result is more horsepower and better fuel economy. Cold air intake is often why most vehicles perform better in cooler or cold weather conditions. Engines that run in hotter climates require more precise timing to get enough cold air to the engine. A properly functioning cold air intake means an increase in throttle response and horsepower as well as a marked improvement in fuel economy. Most vehicles come with stock cold air intakes. Some experts claim that these draw in warmer air and their location in the vehicle inhibits proper cold airflow. Therefore, these stock intakes will not increase your engine performance or give fuel economy as well as high performance cold air intakes. For the coolest possible airflow, high performance products such as the dynamic APC (American Products Company) or performance enhanced AFE (Advanced Flow Engineering) cold air intake will generate a more efficient combustion process and increase horsepower and torque output.

Intake Manifold

The intake manifold is a network of channels that directs the balanced air and fuel mixture into the intake ports in the cylinder head. The flow generally advances from the throttle body into a chamber that feeds individual runners, leading to each intake port. Your engine performance is enhanced if the intake manifold is configured to optimize the pressure pulses in the intake system. A high performance or custom manifold is designed to take advantage of these facts and produce more horsepower and more mid-range torque.

Fuel Injectors

The fuel injector transfers and atomizes the fuel, and like many other engine components, a fuel injector has a finite performance life and must be periodically replaced. The fuel injection pump disperses very precisely measured amounts of fuel through the lines that run from the fuel pump delivery system to each injector. In turn, the injector atomizes and delivers fuel to the pre-chambers for internal combustion. When the injector gets dirty or “gummy”, engine performance can be drastically reduced and your injectors should be replaced. When the spring compression strength becomes weaker, usually due to wear, the pressure of the fuel inside the injector can exceed the spring pressure on the fuel injector. Obviously, this is not something you want to happen because it may keep the injector closed, deliver the improper amount of atomized fuel, or inject fuel at the wrong time to be efficiently burned, either too soon, or too late. It can also cause delivery of the fuel to the pre-chambers that is not finely and properly dispersed or atomized. Poor engine performance and possible irreversible engine damage can be the result. Pinging for a gas engine or Nailing in a diesel engine is a telling clue of this situation. Nailing in a diesel engine will be much noisier than a gas engine’s ping and sounds like metallic hammering. The resulting engine damage can be extremely costly and inconvenient, to say the least. It may make the engine smoke inordinately, and under extreme qualifying factors, it may cause flaws in the pre-chambers. In rare cases it may even cause them to crack or explode. The bottom line is one of obvious conclusion; changing your fuel injectors before this type of damage occurs will save you big money on costly repairs.

Fuel Pumps

The fuel pump is the central component of the fuel delivery system to your vehicle’s engine. Its function is to deliver fuel quickly and efficiently when you step on your accelerator. If your fuel pump isn’t operating correctly, if it generates lower than normal fuel pressure, or if it leaks, insufficient fuel will be supplied to the carburetor or fuel injection system and your vehicle’s performance will decrease. Sufficient gas isn’t going to get to the combustion chamber unless your fuel pump is providing the necessary fuel pressure as it was designed to do. Clean fuel is an essential part of performance. When replacing your fuel pump, be sure to also install a new fuel filter. This is an essential step to keep contaminants out of your fuel system. Clean fuel filters also ensure adequate fuel pressure. Strainers for electrical fuel pumps serve a similar service and fuel lines and hose conditions also can affect performance. Don’t forget that not all fuel pumps are the same. The fuel pump in general terms is unique to your model of vehicle and has been designed to deliver the optimum performance to your engine.

Fuel Pressure Regulators

This one is pretty much self-explanatory. It regulates your fuel pressure. As you already know, a properly operating fuel pressure regulator will deliver power and response in acceleration. Some performance pressure regulators have an integral pressure gauge feature that allows for even minute adjustment of fuel delivery.

Oxygen Sensor

Even though the oxygen sensor is located in the exhaust manifold, it has everything to do with the vehicle’s intake. The oxygen sensor monitors the oxygen content in your vehicle’s exhaust. A U-shaped rod inside the sensor is divided into compartments, and exhaust is vented to the inner compartment. An electrical impulse is then generated as a response to the oxygen content and the strength of the signal (oxygen content) is sent to your vehicle’s on-board computer. The computer then calculates the oxygen content in the exhaust. Analyzing the results, the computer adds or subtracts fuel at the intake to obtain the correct air/fuel mixture. This maximizes fuel economy as well as performance. Oxygen sensors have a limited life and can wear out. A worn oxygen sensor will provide less accuracy and may report erroneous oxygen content in the exhaust when worn and the on-board computer may then make incorrect adjustments as a result. This could result in either a rich or lean air/fuel mixture. If your “check engine” light comes on and the vehicle is not performing well, check the oxygen sensor. Some experts say that changing the oxygen sensor every 60,000 miles is necessary to maintain vehicle performance.

Other vital Components There are many other vital components included in intake systems that should be checked regularly and replaced or upgraded for better performance. They include:

* A.I.R. Pipe
* Air Filter
* Air Filter Recharge Kit
* Air Inject Check Valve
* Air Mass Meter
* Air Mass Sensor
* Air Pump
* Air Temp. Sensor
* Breather Filter
* Carburetors
* Carbon Canister
* EGR Back Pressure Filter
* EGR Vacuum Solenoid
* EGR Valve
* EGR Valve Gasket
* PCV Valve
* PCV Valve Grommet
* Purge Valve
* Thermo-Vacuum Valve

About The Author

This article was written by FR Penn sponsored by The Auto Parts Warehouse offers round-the-clock sales support as well as free shipping within the 48 states for orders over $50. Also, you’ll find more BMW auto parts here than anywhere else on the web. Visit Reproductions of this article are encouraged but must include a link pointing back to

Article Source: Article City

Selecting and Adjusting Aftermarket Anti-Roll Bars

Selecting and Adjusting Aftermarket Anti-Roll Bars

by: Miroslav Ovcharik

Selecting and Adjusting Aftermarket Anti-Roll Bars: Ford Model T Rat Rod
By Sicnag (Ford Model T Rat Rod Uploaded by OSX) [CC BY 2.0 (], via Wikimedia Commons
By providing a link between the left and right side suspension, an anti-roll bar (AKA sway bar) keeps the left and right side of the suspension at nearly the same level vertically, decreasing body roll. Larger diameter sway bars make the suspension stiffer and transfer more weight to the end of the car where they are installed. If the car is understeering, you can increase rear sway bar diameter or decrease front sway bar diameter to restore balance. To correct oversteer with sway bars, it is necessary to install either a smaller rear bar or a larger front bar. Most sway bars have adjustable links that can be used to effectively increase or decrease the stiffness of the sway bar without buying a new one.

Anti-roll bars should be chosen to match your springs. If you are planning on installing stiff springs, there is no need for a large diameter sway bar. The combination of stiff springs and small sway bars is enough to control body roll. Large diameter sway bars are necessary if you will be using relatively soft springs. This is a popular configuration since the ride is not overly harsh, but the suspension is still stiff and body roll is reduced due to the sway bars.

Soft springs with large sway bars and stiff springs with small sway bars accomplish virtually the same goal of providing a stable suspension and reducing excessive weight transfer. A stiff springs/small sway bars setup is generally better than soft springs/large sway bars because stiff springs reduce front-to-back weight transfer. With soft springs, side-to-side weight transfer is controlled by the sway bars, but there is a fair amount of front-to-back weight transfer due to the soft springs. In other words, using soft springs can result in brake dive and acceleration squat, which are detrimental to overall handling.

Visit my website for more information about anti-roll bar

About The Author

Miroslav Ovcharik

I have been an automotive enthusiast throughout my life and have participated successfully in various amateur racing series. I specialize in tuning the Nissan S platform cars, particularly the US domestic market Nissan 240SX. Visit my, which focuses on Nissan 240SX modifications, to get information about suspension setup, quality upgrades, and general 240SX tuning.

Feel free to republish my articles, but please include a text link to my

Article Source: Article City

Suspension Alignment: Understanding and Adjusting Toe

Suspension Alignment: Understanding and Adjusting Toe
by: Miroslav Ovcharik

Suspension Alignment: Understanding and Adjusting Toe: Mercury Meteor
Suspension Alignment: Understanding and Adjusting Toe: Mercury Meteor image By Fornax (Own work) [CC BY-SA 3.0 ( or GFDL (], via Wikimedia Commons
Toe is an alignment parameter that describes how the front wheels are oriented with respect to each other and how the rear wheels are oriented with respect to each other. With the steering wheel centered, if the front wheels are pointing toward each other (from a top view), they have “toe-in” or are “toed-in”. If they are pointing away from each other, they are said to have “toe-out” or be “toed-out”. The same definitions apply for the rear wheels. Toe can be measured as an angle between the perfectly straight position of a wheel and its position after toe is adjusted. Toe can also be determined by finding the difference between the distance separating the front edges of the wheels and the distance separating the rear edges of the wheels. More distance between the front edges than the rear edges is toe-out. More distance between the rear edges than the front edges is toe-in.

Toe is used to change the way a car behaves on corner entry. The more toe-in you have on a pair of wheels, the harder it is to make those wheels turn into a corner. The more toe-out you use, the easier it is to get that pair of wheels to turn into a corner.

Why does this happen? Let’s take an example where a car with toe-in on the front wheels is about to enter a left turn. The driver begins to turn the wheel left. Now, the left-front tire is pointing only slightly to the left while the right-front tire is pointing much more to the left. The problem with this is that the left-front tire needs to turn with a greater angle than the right-front tire because the left-front tire is on the inside of the corner and, therefore, must trace an arc with a smaller radius than the outside tire. However, with toe-in, the left-front tire is actually trying to trace a larger radius arc than the right-front tire. It is difficult to make the car turn because the left-front tire is fighting the right-front. When the car is already in the turn, weight transfers to the right-front tire and diminishes the effect of the left-front tire. Because of this weight transfer, toe mainly affects corner entry.

With toe-out, the inside tire in a corner turns with a greater angle than the outside tire (as it should). This improves the grip of the front tires on corner entry.

In addition to corner-entry handling, toe affects straight-line stability. Toe-in improves stability while toe-out worsens stability. This can be explained through the same reasoning as was used to describe corner-entry handling. Toe-out encourages turn-in since the inside tire turns at a greater angle than the outside. Hence, the car is sensitive to the slightest steering input. Toe-out will make the car wander on the straightaways requiring corrective steering. The car will always be turning unless the steering is perfectly centered. With toe-in, the inside tire fights the outside since the inside is trying to trace a larger radius arc than the outside. As a result, toe-in discourages turn-in and makes the car less sensitive to steering input. In other words, it is more stable.

Let’s consider an example of the straight-line stability concept. Assume you have toe-out on the rear wheels. You are traveling in a straight line when your right-rear tire hits a small bump. It gets pushed back slightly by the impact, and it is now pointing more to the right than the left-rear tire. Therefore, the back of the car turns to the right until the right rear suspension comes back to its original position. The same thing can occur with the front wheels. In fact, the effect on the front suspension is even worse because the right-front wheel getting pushed back, for instance, will also turn the left-front wheel to the right.

Rear toe is usually only adjusted on front-wheel drive cars or rear wheel drive cars with independent rear suspensions. I wanted to include this example just to show that rear toe can be adjusted just like front toe on many cars. With a front-wheel drive car, it is sometimes helpful to add some rear toe-out to decrease the stability of the rear tires and counter the understeer inherent in front-wheel drive cars. For a rear-wheel drive car with independent rear suspension, the torque produced on the rear suspension when you step on the throttle tends to pull the rear wheels forward on the suspension pivots. This creates toe-in. To counter this effect, you can toe-out the rear wheels so they will become straight when you step on the throttle. I do not recommend this since rear toe-out in a rear-wheel drive car can cause severe oversteer. Instead of using toe-out, install aftermarket bushings and suspension links to keep the suspension from getting pulled forward under hard acceleration.

As you may have expected, toe increases tire wear because the tires are fighting each other and, therefore, scrubbing along the ground. Toe-in tends to increase tire wear on the outside edges of the tires. Toe-out tends to increase tire wear on the inside edges of the tires. Make sure that you consider your camber setting when adding toe-out. If you are using negative camber, you are already wearing the inside of the tires more than normal. The combination of excessive negative camber and toe-out can quickly wear the inside of a tire and cause it to fail.

Visit my website for more information about toe adjustments:

About The Author

Miroslav Ovcharik

I have been an automotive enthusiast throughout my life and have participated successfully in various amateur racing series. I specialize in tuning the Nissan S platform cars, particularly the US domestic market Nissan 240SX. Visit my, which focuses on Nissan 240SX modifications, to get information about suspension setup, quality upgrades, and general 240SX tuning.

Feel free to republish my articles, but please include a text link to my

Article Source: Article City

Finding the Optimum Gear Ratios for your Car

Finding the Optimum Gear Ratios for your Car
by: Miroslav Ovcharik

Finding the Optimum Gear Ratios for your Car
1930 Ford Model A Rat Rod image By Mrhorrible666 (Own work) [CC BY-SA 3.0 (], via Wikimedia Commons
The gears in the transmission and the differential control the acceleration and top speed of a car. A gear is identified using its “gear ratio”. For instance, the first gear in the Nissan 240SX 5-speed transmission has a gear ratio of 3.321:1. This means that (when the transmission is in first gear) the driveshaft rotates one time for every 3.321 rotations of the engine. First gear allows the engine to operate in the RPM range where it makes the most power even when the car is moving slowly. This is the purpose of a transmission.

A short gear is one with a low gear ratio, and a tall gear is one with a high gear ratio. For example, a 3.321:1 gear is shorter than a 1.902:1 gear.

In racing, you want to set up your gears so that you can use the full potential of your engine in each gear. In other words, it is not useful to have a 5-speed transmission if you’re driving on a relatively low-speed track where you never shift up to fifth gear. In this case, you could install a shorter final gear, which will have the effect of shrinking the difference between gears and allowing you to use the fifth gear. The opposite problem is when you run out of gears (reach the RPM limit in fifth gear). To allow for more top speed, you can install a taller final gear, which will have the effect of increasing the difference between your transmission’s gears. Before choosing a new final gear, you can use the Top Speed Calculator at to find what the top speed of your car will be with the new gear ratio. It is also possible to change the individual gears in your transmission, but this is not practical. It is usually only done by professional race teams.

Visit my website for more information about selecting proper gears:

About The Author

Miroslav Ovcharik

I have been an automotive enthusiast throughout my life and have participated successfully in various amateur racing series. I specialize in tuning the Nissan S platform cars, particularly the US domestic market Nissan 240SX. Visit my, which focuses on Nissan 240SX modifications, to get information about suspension setup, quality upgrades, and general 240SX tuning.

Feel free to republish my articles, but please include a text link to my

Article Source: Article City

Prop Shaft: An integral Part of the Automobile Machinery

Prop Shaft: An integral Part of the Automobile Machinery

by: Trish Dougherty

Prop Shaft= Propeller Shaft= Drive Shaft
Rat Rod Image by By dave_7 from Lethbridge, Canada (Rat rod) [CC BY 2.0 (], via Wikimedia Commons

The automobile engine has evolved over time. Rapid advances in technology have meant that it is getting more and more sophisticated day by day. This has meant that all the ancillary machinery that is connected to the automobile engine has also seen improvements. The entire range of improvements is geared towards providing the users with maximum benefit.

In this article, we talk about the propeller shaft commonly known as the “prop-shaft”. The propeller shaft helps in connecting a propeller to the engine. In British automobile parlance the propeller shaft is also called the drive shaft. If, you go into the specifics, the prop shaft, in effect, connects the gearbox of the automobile with the rear differential. The propeller shafts used in contemporary automobiles are typically more rigid than their earlier counterparts. This enables them to deliver maximum power to the wheels from a transmission. Propeller shafts are generally used in pairs and short prop shaft are used to provide power to the wheels. This can be from a differential, transaxle, or a transmission.

In the case of rear-drive vehicles or ones that have a rear engine, the prop shafts that are used are longer. This enables the power to be sent through the length of the vehicle. Two forms of prop shafts are extensively used in the world of automobiles namely the Hotchkiss shaft that has two or more joints, and the torque tube that has a single universal joint. The prop shaft is used when the engine and axles are not together but are separate from each other. This scenario occurs in vehicles that come under the category of four-wheel drive and rear-wheel drive. In these cases it is the definitive prop shaft that transmits the engine generated drive force to the axles of the vehicle.

In terms of optimization, the best prop shafts are those that are bar-like and short. The prop shaft is likely to sag if the bar is long. The sagging further accentuates as a result of rotation. The affects of sagging are vibration and noise pollution. This, at times, happens to such an extent that the prop shaft breaks when a driver exceed the critical speed limit.

But do not be unduly worried. All propeller shafts are configured in a way such that they do not break when they are used with the service limits that are stipulated by manufacturers. Moreover, all prop shafts are designed to curtail any vibrations that can occur from varied causes.

If your prop shaft breaks or is damaged by the regular wear-and-tear, then there is an emerging prop shaft market that gives you a comprehensive list choices. You must go for those which designed specifically for your type of automobile and which come with maintenance and warranty. You should make sure that you don’t make your decisions based on the cost factor alone. Good prop shaft don’t come cheap. Specialist manufacturers are now coming out with new and improved prop shafts that are the best in terms of quality, functionality, and over all value.

Make an informed decision, when you purchase a prop shaft.

About The Author

Trish Dougherty is the author for – , Get more information on prop shafts –

Article Source: Article City

Caring for Leather Car Interiors

Caring for Leather Car Interiors
by: Elena Maria

Caring for Leather Car Interiors: Ratrod
Ratrod image By dave_7 from Lethbridge, Canada (Hot Rod) [CC BY 2.0 (], via Wikimedia Commons

Leather consists of thousands and thousands of intertwined fibers, with penetrable pores throughout—just like skin. Proper maintenance starts with cleaning the fibers. Cleaning removes fiber-severing abrasives and pore clogging dirt and dust, both of which will breakdown the leather over time and give it a less than pleasing texture and appearance.

If you have pets, then you may want to invest in pet pads or pet seat covers for your interior. You will also want to look into a good reflective sun shield.

With regular cleaning and conditioning, a leather interior will last for the life of the vehicle. Leather is tough and abuse resistant. The main concern is to determine is what type of leather interior you have, then choose cleaners and conditioners designed specifically for the task. Traditional leather interiors are made of 100% leather, where as some modern interiors are leather coated with a supple vinyl.

A quick test to determine which type you have is to use a small amount of cool clean water. Traditional leather will absorb water, where vinyl coated leather will repel it. Either way, a few drops of water won’t harm your interior.

The next step is to determine the right cleaners and conditioners for your leather. Saddle soap and conditioners, while good for your baseball glove or go-go boots, are not to be used on automotive leather of any kind. The soap contains alkalis, which can permanently damage the material in your seats. Household detergents and cleaners can damage leather as well. Always use only a product designed for the type of leather your vehicle has.

Removing harmful oil and dirt deposits is the crucial first step. Always use clean soft cloths to prevent damage to, or inadvertent removal of the leather dye. Stubborn dirt lodged into crevices may require the use of an upholstery brush. Removal of gunk and grime must be done before conditioning the leather, as you don’t want to permanently push these contaminants into the pores.

The next step, probably even more important, is conditioning. This nourishes and moisturizes to lubricate individual fibers, keeping them from becoming brittle and dry. It replaces essential, natural oils that evaporate. How can you tell a good conditioner? A good conditioner will offer UV protection. Like human skin, ultra-violet rays will quickly cause deterioration of the leather and shorten its lifespan significantly. A good conditioner will be absorbed into the leather, not sit atop the surface or leave residue behind. The surface should not be oily after application. The very best conditioners are pH balanced, have stain repellants, waterproofing agents to protect from accidents.

While cleaning and conditioning your interior be sure not to leave any tools or sharp objects in your pockets that could put a hole in your seats and your good time. As with any cleaner, conditioner or chemical that involves the potential for ruining something really expensive, always test first in a small, inconspicuous area.

Inexpensive leather cleaners and conditioners will contain petroleum distillates, silicon or silicon oils, and gloss agents that deliver an inferior, greasy finish that does nothing for the leather, and transfers to anything that the leather comes in contact with. These chemicals are harmful to your leather.

About The Author

Article Source: Article City

Why You Need To Have A Radiator Cooling Fan For Your Car

Why You Need To Have A Radiator Cooling Fan For Your Car
by: Darren Dunner

Why You Need To Have A Radiator Cooling Fan For Your Car
Why You Need To Have A Radiator Cooling Fan For Your Car image courtesy of Pixabay

Did you know that vehicles require cooling fans to transfer heat just the way humans require an air cooler to keep us cool during summer. It is not possible for us as humans to stay without an air cooler or electric fan during the summer season. All of us require refreshing and cool air to pump up our energy levels and move ahead in life. The scenario is very similar for any vehicle that needs a radiator-cooling fan to transfer heat. An adequate radiator-cooling fan not only protects the engine of the vehicle from getting burnt but also ensures its longevity.

What basically are radiator-cooling fans?

· Radiator cooling fans are heat exchangers that protect your engine from getting burnt and spoilt.

· They are specially designed to help the car engine to maintain a cool temperature and ensure its longevity.

· They basically have four to six blades that work rapidly and provide sufficient cooling air to your engines.

· They are placed between the engine and the radiator so that the heat is transferred from the radiator.

· The radiator-cooling fan is specially designed in such a way that it turns on when the temperature of the engine rises and stops when the temperature is normal.

· Some radiator cooling fans are specially designed to work on the basis of a thermostatic switch.

Tips that can help

Today one can find different types of radiator cooling fans on the web so much so that it is difficult to select the best one of the lot. In order to ensure a high quality-cooling fan for your car it would be advisable on your end to select a cooling fan that best suits the requirements of your car. Never purchase a fan just because it is cheap. Always remember quality is what matters in the end.

About The Author

Darren Dunner is an article writer currently writng for Find more information about the subject at

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Automotive Batteries

Automotive Batteries
by: Barbara Moore

Automotive Batteries: 1930 Model A Ford
1930 Model A Ford image By Morepowerigor (Own work) [GFDL ( or CC BY-SA 4.0-3.0-2.5-2.0-1.0 (], via Wikimedia Commons

Think of the battery as the heart of your car. You need a battery you can count on to get your motor running and keep it pumping all day long.

The car battery is an essential element of the intricate network that makes your car start and keeps the engine running. The battery powers most of the car’s electrical components and accessory structures, such as the headlights, turn signals, fans, etc. While the alternator provides most of the electrical needs of the entire car system, the battery can keep them going in the event of an alternator malfunction.

There are many batteries available at automotive supply stores, and it’s important to know exactly which model is the right choice for your car. The wrong battery won’t work in your car, and it may even cause damage to the vehicle. Knowing which battery is right for your particular vehicle is extremely important, and it can also help to learn about the various battery manufacturers and automotive supply companies. You should only have to buy a battery every few years, so make sure you’re buying the right one.

* Size Matters: Buying a battery for your car is like choosing a pair of shoes for you. One size does not fit all. The size of the battery itself is important, as it needs to fit snugly into the space allotted under the engine’s hood. If the battery is too small there is the risk of it becoming dismantled and causing vibrations or damage. Further, the battery will either be a top post or side post model, which will determine how it fits and operates.

* Power Up: You need to know your car’s specific power requirements before purchasing a car battery. Some cars need an 8-volt battery, while others require a 12-volt. There are a number of considerations to take into account, such as the size of the car and the number of accessories that must be powered. A huge sound system, for example, can easily suck the life out of an average car battery. A 12-volt battery should be able to maintain at least 7.2 volts when the vehicle is starting and while it is operational.

* Chill Out: If you live in a cold-climate area, it’s important to check the Cold Cranking Amps (CCA) before you buy. CCA is a measurement used to determine a battery’s ability to start an engine at 0° Fahrenheit, within a 30 second period. A higher CCA rating means the battery will start your vehicle faster and more effectively in freezing weather.

* Get it in Writing: No matter how well known the manufacturer is, you need to get a written manufacturers warranty with your battery. Make sure that the battery is in original condition, and is not a recharged model. The quality and dependability of the battery you choose should be indicative of the warranty you’re offered. Make sure that battery is guaranteed for the duration of the battery’s life (ie: if you plan on using the battery for five years, look for a five-year warranty).

* Keep it Fresh: Whether you’re buying bananas or batteries, you need to make sure they’re fresh and damage-free. Just because it’s a piece of car equipment, it’s not OK for your battery to waste away on a stockroom shelf. Make sure that the battery you buy is produced by a known and respected manufacturer, and that it’s fully charged and ready to start your car. If you’re not careful, you can run the risk of purchasing a fake or recharged battery. Look on the side of a battery casing for a special label or decal. You’ll find the month and year that the battery was shipped from the manufacturer’s plant. The letters ‘A’ through ‘M’ represent months of the year. For example, ‘A’ is January and ‘M’ is December. The letter ‘I’ is not used. The numbers 1 through 9 denotes the year of manufacture. Therefore, if the sticker on your batter reads L4, you know that it was manufactured in November 2004.

A car battery provides starting power to your vehicle, so make sure it’s dependable. Understand your car’s requirements and know how to verify the quality of the battery before you make the final purchase.

About The Author

Barbara Moore writes for several web sites, including and

Article source: Article City